Following law studies at Bristol University and at the College of Europe, he practiced as a solicitor with Allen & Overy in London before becoming a partner with Clifford-Chance, working successively in their Brussels, Dubai and Paris office, dealing, in particular, with company, commercial and banking matters. He joined the Legal Service of the European Commission in 1980, advising on and drafting legislation, as well as preparing and negotiating treaties with third countries. He also appeared for the Commission in a great number of cases before the European Court of Justice in a variety of areas of EU law. From 2000 to 2010 he was Director in charge of the Legal Service’s Business Law Team, dealing with the Capital, Establishment and Services freedoms, in particular in the banking, telecommunications and transport sectors.
After retiring from the Commission in 2010, he was made Senior Fellow in the Law Department of the European University Institute in Florence and the seminars he held there led to two publications, ‘Direct Investment, National Champions and EU Treaty Freedoms’, (Oxford, Hart 2010) and ‘Services and the EU Citizen (Hart 2013). He has given university courses and lectures in Italy, Belgium, the UK and elsewhere and contributes to various publications, most recently the work edited by Bobek & Prassl entitled Air Passenger Rights Ten Years On (Hart January 2016) and a Wiley Compendium of EU law.